Monday, November 22, 2010
Sunday, November 21, 2010
Signs and symptoms:-
Diagnosis and Test
Saturday, November 20, 2010
What is Anal Cancer?
Anal Cancer is a condition that develops in the tissues present in the anus. Anus is the small tubular structure connecting the lower section of the large intestine called the rectum to outside the body. The anus functions by controlling the excretion of unwanted body waste through bowel movements.
Diagnosis & Tests:
The general practitioner would carry out a detailed examination of the patient subsequent to which, the patient would be referred to a professional in bowel conditions –the gastroenterologist. In the hospital, the doctor would query the patient regarding general health conditions and any past medical conditions. The patient would be examined by the doctor and blood sample would be drawn for checking the general health and the functioning of the liver. A series of tests would be conducted for confirming the presence of anal cancer.
- Rectal Exam
At times also called the PR exam wherein the doctor would conduct an examination of the back route with a lubricated gloved finger.
A small amount of cell sample is drawn from the tumour for microscopic analysis. Generally, this employs the use of either a specialised biopsy piece of equipment called the punch biopsy or a small section of the tumour would be incised by the doctor – called the incisional biopsy. Both of these biopsies are conducted under the influence of local or general anaesthesia. In case the tests reveal an affirmative outcome, then additional tests would be carried out to analyse the metastasis of the cancer.
These are taken for assessing whether the cancer has metastasized.
- Ultrasound Scan
This simple scanning procedure employs sound waves for capturing images of the interior of the abdominal region that are conducted in the hospital scanning section. On lying down on a flat surface, a gel is applied all over the abdomen subsequent to which a small hand-held device is moved all over it. The sound waves produced are transformed into images employing a computer. The pain-free procedure lasts for nearly twenty minutes. At times an ultrasound scan procedure called as endoanal ultrasound could be performed wherein a tiny, slender probe is introduced into the back route (rectum) that provides images of the size and spread of the tumour.
- CT or Computerised Tomography Scan
A CT scan captures a sequence of x-rays that are passed via computer to reproduce 3-D pictures of the inner areas of the body. The pain-free procedure lasts for ten to thirty minutes. CT scans employ miniscule amounts of radiation that are not harmful to either the patient or those coming in contact with the patient. The patient would be requested not to ingest liquids or solids for nearly four hours prior to the scan. Majority of the individuals undergoing the scan are offered a drink or administered a shot for allowing certain areas to be seen more lucidly. Prior to getting the injection or the drink it is imperative to inform the individual conducting the test whether one is allergic to iodine or asthmatic. Following the scan, one could return home.
- MRI or Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan
This test procedure is analogous to a CT scan, however this employs magnetic fields rather than x-rays. During the course of the scan, the person would be requested to lie totally motionless on a couch inside a metallic cylindrical enclosure which is a potent magnet. Hence, prior to entering inside the room, one must remove any kind of metallic items in one’s possession. The doctor also must be informed in case one has previously worked with metals or were employed in the metal industry or whether one has any metal present in the body (for instance, a heart monitor, a pacemaker, surgical clips or bone pins). In case these might be present in the body, then a MRI would not be performed on that person due to the magnetic fields. An injection would be administered for allowing greater picture clarity of the interiors of the body. The test procedure would last for nearly thirty minutes and is totally painless, though the MRI machine could sound loud. Earplugs or headphones would be offered for this reason. In case, one is apprehensive of closed spaces, one might find the feeling of being inside the machine quite suffocating or stifling. A 2-way intercom facilitates easy communication with the person operating the scanner.
- Staging and Grading
The staging of cancer depicts the size and the extent of metastasis past the initial location of occurrence. Gaining knowledge of the specific type and the staging of the cancer assists doctors in deciding upon the best line of treatment. Cancer could proliferate in the body through either the bloodstream or via the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a component of the body’s protection mechanism from infection and ailments and comprises of a system of lymph glands or lymph nodes that are connected by fine ducts that contain lymph fluid. The doctor would generally examine the close by lymph nodes while staging the cancer.
- Stage 1
The cancer is observed to affect the anus and has a size of lesser than two centimetres or 3/4th inch. It has not yet metastasized to the sphincter muscle.
- Stage 2
The cancer is more than two centimetres in size, however has not reached into the close by lymph nodes or to other body parts.
- Stage 3A
The cancer has metastasized to the lymph nodes near the rectum, or to the closely situated organs like the bladder or vagina.
- Stage 3B
The cancer has metastasized to either the lymph nodes in the groin region, pelvis or to the lymph nodes near the anus, along with the closely placed organs like the bladder or vagina.
- Stage 4
The cancer has metastasized to lymph nodes in the abdominal region or other organs of the body like the liver.At times, a different staging system known as the TNM staging system is employed in place of the number system specified above.
Depicts the tumour size and if it has spread to the close by organs.
Depicts if the cancer has metastasized to the lymph nodes.
Depicts whether the cancer has metastasized to another body organ like the liver (secondary or metastatic cancer).
Though this system is more multifarious, it could offer more accurate data regarding the tumour staging.
In case the cancer relapses subsequent to original treatment, then it is called as recurrent cancer.
Grading refers to the microscopic appearance of the cancerous cells and provides insight about how rapidly the cancer could develop. Low-grade would mean that the cancer cells appear quite alike normal cells. They generally have a slow growth and are less prone to proliferating. Among high-grade tumours, the cells appear quite anomalous and have a likelihood of swifter growth and spread.
Friday, November 19, 2010
Pros and Cons of Treatment
Treatment could be offered for varying reasons and the apparent advantages would differ in each individual. In case the treatment is being given with the objective of curing the cancer, the decision on whether to undergo the treatment might not be that tricky. But, when the cure is not achievable and the treatment is for controlling the cancer for a span of time then it could get knotty reaching a decision on whether or not to undergo the treatment.
In case one is undecided regarding the treatment when initially explicated, one could always request for additional time to make up one’s mind.
The choice not to undergo the treatment is an individual decision and the staff could elucidate what could imminently occur in case one does not want to get treated.
HIV and Treatment
Individuals having depleted immunity due to HIV along with having anal cancer might experience increased intensity of side effects during and subsequent to the treatment. As a consequence, the radiotherapy amounts and chemotherapy doses might be lowered.
Radiotherapy employs the use of high-power energy beams for obliterating cancer cells, while sparing most of the normal cells. The treatment is mostly administered for a certain span of minutes during every weekday lasting till four to six weeks.
During the course of the treatment phase, the patient would experience alterations in bowel functioning like diarrhoea or would pass wind often; though these side effects could at times be lowered by keeping away from some foods. As one approaches the concluding phase of the treatment, one could start getting blisters or tenderness in the skin around the anal area or also likely in groin parts. Intense weariness or exhaustion is additionally a prevalent side effect of undergoing radiotherapy treatment for anal cancer.
Such side effects generally subside in a gradual manner as the treatment concludes, though it might require few months for the skin to come back to its normal form. Some individuals experience a long-lasting change in their bowel movements. It is imperative to speak with one’s doctor or specialist nurse regarding this as mostly there are ways to allaying these problems. The doctor or dietician at the hospital could provide further guidance.
Other likely side effects that might arise subsequent to radiotherapy for anal cancer are vaginal constriction (vaginal stenosis) and dryness felt in the vagina. To aid in averting this, women would be advised on using vaginal dilators alongside jelly for lubrication purposes for keeping the vaginal walls open and maintain suppleness. Few women might also require using lubricating jelly at the time of sexual contact.
Infertility (inability to bear children) could be the consequence of undergoing radiotherapy. In case one is apprehensive about the chances of infertility subsequent to treatment, then it would be a better option to discuss this matter with the specialist prior to commencing the treatment.
Chemotherapy employs cancer-combatant (cytotoxic) drugs for annihilating cancer cells that are administered generally through intravenous injection.
Chemotherapy could transitorily lower the normal cell count in the blood. One could become more prone to infection when the white blood cell count depletes. When there is a plummet in red blood cell count, then a person could turn anemic leading to recurrent fatigue. A sapped platelet count could lead to easy bruising. The blood would be analysed on a regular basis during the course of chemotherapy treatment and antibiotics could be suggested for treating any kind of infection. Blood transfusion could be administered in case one gets anemia during the course of chemotherapy.
Other side effects experienced involve feeling nauseous and vomiting. Oral sores and ulcers could arise as side effect of certain chemotherapy drugs. Regular use of mouthwashes is vital and the nurse would illustrate on their optimal use.
In case one has no appetite for consuming meals, then nutritive beverages or soups could be employed as supplements in the diet. Wide-spanning choices of beverages are obtainable at many chemist shops. The doctor or dietician could be consulted regarding diet queries.
Surgery is chosen when the original treatment fails to totally eliminate the cancer or when there are symptoms of a relapse. There are two key forms of surgery:
This could be employed for small-sized tumours located outside the anus. This surgery solely involves the removal of the part of the anus that has the malignant growth. The anal sphincter is generally not affected, and hence there is normal bladder functioning retained in majority of the individuals.
This involves removing the anus and rectum. A permanent colostomy is requisite in this surgery wherein a diversion is made from the open end of the bowel onto the abdominal surface for allowing passage of the faeces outside of the body ending in a colostomy bag. The aperture on the wall of the abdomen is called a stoma. The perception about a colostomy could be firstly disquieting and upsetting for several individuals, though many get accustomed to it over a span of time and could go back to their normal functioning.
Thursday, November 18, 2010
Among the many different types of cancer that an individual can acquire, one question that many people often wonder about is ‘what is anal cancer’. Anal cancer is a specific form of this harmful disease that is considered to be quite rare. The area of the body that this form of cancer occurs is in the individual’s anal canal, which is a small tube that is located at the end of the body’s rectum. This is the area of the body that is responsible for performing the natural process of ridding the body of various types of harmful toxins, unwanted matter, and various food products that have already been digested in the digestive system, and then they exit the body through the stool.
According to the National Cancer Institute, there are as many as 5,000 individuals every single year that are diagnosed with this specific type of cancer. However, the occurrence of this specific type of cancer has shown to be on the rise, but the reason why there has been an increase in people that acquire anal cancer is still unclear.
Aside from the question ‘what is anal cancer’, another question that concerns many individuals is when does this type of disease generally occur, what symptoms are usually experienced when a person has anal cancer, and what are the most common treatment methods that are used for this specific type of cancer.
In most of the cases when a diagnosis ultimately leads to the occurrence of anal cancer, the disease is generally found when it is in its early stages. This is of course a huge benefit to the patient, as early treatment offers the highest chances of being able to adequately cure the disease.
There are a variety of different factors that can ultimately end up causing a person to suffer from anal cancer. Some of the most common factors that various studies and research projects have uncovered are those that are listed below.
- Smoking cigarettes containing nicotine puts individuals at a much higher risk for acquiring this form of cancer.
- Individuals that engage in sexual activities with several different sex partners in combination with anal sex can result in this disease.
- Individuals that have reached the age of 50 and above are at a higher risk for anal cancer.
- Due to the sexual activities of individuals that are homosexual, their chances of acquiring anal cancer are much higher than in individuals that are heterosexual.
- Individuals who have acquired HPV, which is more commonly known as genital human papillomavirus are at a much higher risk level for acquiring problems that are commonly associated with anal cancer.
Followed by the question of ‘what is anal cancer’, those who have acquired this type of disease are at a much higher concern of the specific treatment methods that are commonly used to treat this type of disease. Because most cases of anal cancer are caught early, there is a high success rate of successfully being able to treat and cure individuals that have acquired this form of cancer.
Wednesday, November 17, 2010
When a man or woman acquires the disease that is known as anal cancer, there is a variety of different types of symptoms of anal cancer that many of these individuals will suffer from. Every single person’s system is much different from the next person, so not everyone has the very same experiences when they suffer from this type of disease. Below you will find a list of sotating disease as anal cancer.
- There are many people with this disease that begin to notice a discharge that is jelly-like in its consistency and is expelled from the anus.
- Women with this disease may notice a dryness of the vagina.
- Bleeding of the rectum is one of the common symptoms of anal cancer that many people notice as they are wiping after using the restroom, and some people notice it in the stool.
- Because tumors associated with this type of cancer can often form on the vagina, many women notice a great deal of back pain with this disease.
- Most all people that suffer from this disease will experience pain that is felt in the anal area.
- Itching of the anal area is a very common occurrence with this type of disease.
- Some individuals with anal cancer experience uncomfortable bloating.
- Lumps that can be felt in the anus area is one of the common symptoms of anal cancer that are many times mistaken for hemorrhoids (piles).
- A mucus discharge that is discharged from the anal area is a problem that many anal cancer patients end up dealing with.
- Fecal incontinence is a common problem that many individuals experience, which is more commonly known as problems in being able to control the bowels.
- Some individuals may experience various changes in how the bowel movements occur. These changes would include stools that are much thinner, constipation, and problems with diarrhea.
When these types of symptoms are experienced, it can become extremely hard for a person to handle the pain and discomfort that they are going through. However, there is a wide variety of prescription medications that many physicians and specialists will prescribe to patients that regularly experience the many symptoms of anal cancer.
If you begin noticing any of the above listed types of symptoms, you should not become alarmed. The most important thing that you will want to do is make an appointment with your family health care provider so that he can gather information on your family history, and schedule the appropriate tests that will need to be done for an adequate diagnosis. There are some of the symptoms of anal cancer that do occur in various other types of health conditions, so just because you may be experiencing one or two of these symptoms, it does not necessarily mean that you are suffering from anal cancer.
Tuesday, November 16, 2010
Females who undergo breast cancer radiation treatmentmostly are facing a lengthy listing of ‘do-not-do’s’ on the usage of personal skincare product types, inclusive of anti-perspirants, deo-sprays –in case the therapy region is including or is in close proximity to the underarm area. The recommendation is because the chemical substances present in antiperspirant products might aggravate radiation dermatitis – a skin disorder wherein the part of the skin undergoing treatment develops inflammation.
The novel trial whose presentation was done during the recently held ASRO meet enrolled 198 females having preliminary staging breast cancer and noted that deo-users had no greater likelihood of develop inflamed or irritated skin at the time of radiation therapy as compared to patients that were notified on halting usage of deodorants.
According to head-researcher, D. Gies from Tom Baker Cancer Center, there is absence of proof for forbidding the usage of antiperspirant products at the time of 2-Field Brea
st Cancer Radiation treatment. Locating the proof for backing patient centric care had been a critical objective of this trial.
Doctor Gies pointed out that the recommendation for halting usage of d
eodorants at the time of radiation therapy arises from the notion that weightier constituents in several
antiperspirant products like aluminium are capable of interacting with radiation therapy for creating elevated dosage & higher danger of toxic effect on the skin.
Novel Trial Allays Worries during Breast Cancer Ra
A number of females have raised concerns regarding body smells in case they adhere to the recommendation, the study researchers have pointed out. However several cancer specialists have noted that they might not, in all situations, be communicating the effects of such skincare restraints to their physicians.
According to J. Wong from the field of radiation oncology at Boston’s Dana Farber Cancer Center, a noteworthy or a moderate percentage of patients are uncomfortable and possibly distraught with the restrictions on the use of deodorants at the time ofbreast cancer radiation treatment. Wong points out that although not many are vocal about their objection, possibly due to the scenario, however she anticipates that the thought is rife in the mind of several of such patients.
According to Doctor G. Freedman from the field of radiation oncology, this small-scaled trial is bound to have a consequential effect on patient populaces and such trials are only leading to additional proof about deterrence of these products being nothing but antiquated in the field of radiotherapy rather than fact-based.
Doctor Wong stated that practice parameters need an alteration and basis of previous practice was on hypothetical worries & subjective experience. Wong professed to being privileged to have these randomized studies in assisting them in improving their practices.
Monday, November 15, 2010
It is still unknown what the exact causes of anal cancer are in individuals that end up suffering from the symptoms that are most commonly associated with this form of cancer. There is however a large number of different risk factors that can contribute to the number of individuals that end up suffering from this devastating disease. Below are some of the most common factors that many specialists and physicians believe to be risk factors of this type of disease.
Other types of cancer
There is a much higher risk of acquiring this form of cancer in male patients that have previously suffered from the affects of penile cancer, and it is also higher in women that have previously had cervical or vaginal cancer.
Human papilloma virus (HPV)
There are as many as 80% of the individuals that suffer from HPV, that also end up suffering from the symptoms that are commonly associated with anal cancer.
An individual’s age
Age is a factor that greatly affects the causes of anal cancer, as well as various other types of cancer. The older an individual becomes, the higher their chances become in acquiring this disease.
Individuals that develop the unhealthy habit of cigarette smoking are much more likely to acquire anal cancer than in individuals that do not smoke.
Anal lesions that are benign
Benign anal lesions can be caused from various health conditions such as irritable bowel disease (IBD), cicatrices or fistulae, and hemorrhoids. These lesions can cause the risk to become higher in individuals with this type of problem.
Several sex partners
HPV is a common health condition that individuals with several sexual partners can acquire, which is also a health concern that is linked to cases of anal cancer.
Immune system that is weak
A weakened immune system is one of the common causes of anal cancer, and a variety of other types of diseases and health conditions as well. People that make it a point to eat healthy, get plenty of rest, and consume meals that are high in vitamins and mineral content, are much less likely to suffer from the problems that a weakened immune system can cause.
Anal sexual intercourse
Any individual that engages in anal sex are risking a much higher chance of acquiring anal cancer, than those that do not participate in this type of sexual activity. The risk in men that engage in this type of sexual activity that have been diagnosed as being positive with HIV, the chances of acquiring anal sex is as much as 90 times higher than in those without this disease.
To ensure that you do not end up suffering from the painful symptoms that can occur when an individual has, it is important to become aware of the causes of anal cancer. Leading a healthy life is also important and can be achieved by eating healthy foods that contain essential vitamins and minerals that the body needs to function properly. Plenty of rest and exercise are also very important for good health.
Sunday, November 14, 2010
- 1 (10-ounce) container roasted red pepper hummus
- 1 cup coarsely chopped fresh baby spinach
- 1/2 cup chopped sun-dried tomatoes, reconstituted
- 1/2 cup chopped peeled cucumber
- 1/4 cup chopped red onion
- 1/4 cup crumbled reduced-fat feta cheese or crumbled goat cheese
- 2 tablespoons sliced Kalamata olives
- 1/4 cup chopped pecans, toasted
- Spread hummus on 9-inch serving plate.
- Sprinkle evenly with remaining ingredients and refrigerate until serving time.
Saturday, November 13, 2010
- 1 1⁄4 tsp. kosher salt
- 1 tsp. each ground cumin, ancho chile powder, dried oregano, and brown sugar
- 4 (8 oz.) boneless rib-eye steaks, 1-inch thick
- 2 Tbsp. olive oil
- 1⁄2 cup diced onion
- 1 tsp. minced garlic
- 1 pint mixed cherry tomatoes, halved
- 1 chipotle chile in adobo sauce,seeded, minced
- 2 Tbsp. fresh lime juice
- 1⁄4 cup chopped cilantro
- Combine 1 tsp. of the salt, cumin, ancho chile powder, oregano, and brown sugar; rub over steaks. Let marinate at room temperature while
preparing outdoor grill or preheating grill pan.
- Grill steaks 8 to 10 minutes, turning once, for medium-rare, 10 to 12 minutes for medium. Transfer steaks to a platter; cover loosely with
foil while making salsa.
- Heat oil in large skillet over medium heat. Add onion and garlic; cook until softened, 4 minutes. Add tomatoes, chipotle, and lime juice. Cook, tossing mixture, 1 to 2 minutes.
- Transfer salsa to a bowl; toss with cilantro. Spoon over steaks.